Since their discovery, four species of human bocavirus (HBoV) have been described in patients with respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. However, a clear causal association between HBoV-1 and gastroenteritis has not been demonstrated. In this study, we describe the detection and quantification of HBoV-1 in stools from children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HBoV-1 genome was detected in 10·6% of stools with frequent association with rotavirus and norovirus. The median of HBoV-1 viral load was 1·88 × 104 genome/ml, lower than previously shown in secretions of patients with respiratory infections, without any obvious association between high viral load and presence of HBoV as single agent. Thus, although HBoV-1 was frequently detected in these patients, there is no clear causal association of this agent with diarrhoea. Indeed, HBoV-1 DNA in stools of patients with gastroenteritis without respiratory symptoms may be a remnant of previous infections or associated with prolonged shedding of virus in the respiratory or digestive tracts.