Objective: To measure the effectiveness of the standard TB retreatment regimen (2HRZES/1HRZE/5HRE) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults.
Design: Cohort study.
Results: Of 1318 HIV-infected patients with access to antiretroviral therapy following World Health Organization guidelines, 56 were diagnosed with recurrent pulmonary TB and retreated with the standard retreatment regimen: 10 patients (18%) died during retreatment, 3 (5%) defaulted, and 2 (4%) failed treatment. Forty-one patients (73%) achieved retreatment ‘success’ (cure, treatment completed). Of these, 8 (20%) died during follow-up, 5 (12%) were lost, and 5 (12%) had a second recurrence of TB. Only 26 (46%) of the 56 patients remained alive, in care, and TB-free after a median of 36 months of follow-up.
Conclusions: HIV-infected patients treated for recurrent TB with the standard retreatment regimen have high mortality and poor long-term outcomes.