The aim of this study is to assess the role of IL-1 with the risk of preterm birth.
This case–control study was conducted in King George’s Medical University, a tertiary care hospital. Cases (n = 559) were defined as mothers (age 18–40 y) of singleton live preterm. Controls (n = 559) were mothers who delivered a singleton neonate, consecutive to enrolled case, after completing 37 weeks of gestation. Four polymorphisms of (IL1α − 889C/T, + 4845C/T) and IL1β genes (− 31T/C and − 511C/T) were typed from genomic DNA. Allelic frequencies were compared between cases and control subjects and haplotypic analysis was carried out.
Results: Haplotype analysis demonstrated significant association between preterm birth and genotypes frequency of both the genes (p < 0.05). Significant association was found in CT haplotype (OR = 1.36, 95%CI (1.14–1.62), p ≤ 0.001) of first block and CT (OR = 1.29, 95% CI (1.01–1.64), p = 0.039) and TT (OR = 1.20, 95% CI (1.00–1.43), p = 0.044) haplotype of second block. We observed higher frequency of IL-1 haplotype distribution (CTTC, CTTT, TTCT, CCTC and CCCT) among cases (P = 0.03–0.001, OR = 1.57–1.97).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the polymorphisms and haplotypes in the IL1 gene contribute as a risk factor to PTB in North Indian population.